Given the importance of publications and authorship to measures of research quality and academic career progression, a properly thought through strategy should be a feature of your research project. As the leader of a research team, it is advisable that you discuss and agree the publication strategy and ground rules for authorship with your team, and other collaborators, at an early stage of the project.
Clarifying expectations at the outset will help avoid problems at a later stage, such as individuals feeling that their contribution has not been fairly recognised or rewarded. Some of the things you may wish to consider and discuss might include:. There are a range of factors to consider in terms of selecting which publication to target.
Your institution or funding body might have requirements for securing open access to your research outputs. Other main considerations include the significance of your research and whether it fits the scope of the publication for example, does it have cross-disciplinary or narrow appeal? The relative prestige of a publication as evidenced by impact factors is also likely to be a key consideration, although you may need to weight this up against rejection rates, turn-around and backlog times, particularly if there is a need to publish quickly, for example for fear of a scoop.
Other factors might include word limits, page charges, circulation rates, and whether there are planned special issues addressing your research area. Discussing with your researchers and sharing the process through which you agree which publication to target help them develop their understanding of the publication process. It will also help them to recognise how a particular publication sits within their own publication record and broader CV.
Authorship is usually credited to the individuals who have made a substantial contribution to the design, implementation, or interpretation of the research described in the publication. Because of the importance of authorship in academia, many disciplines, publishers and institutions have their own guidance or codes of practice addressing this issue and it is recommended that you and your research team become familiar with these.
The Committee on Publication Ethics How to handle authorship disputes; a guide for new researchers contains very helpful guidance suitable for both principal investigators and their research staff providing:. Getting an article from conception to final publication involves many stages such as planning, drafting, editing, preparing tables, figures and illustrations, submission, responding to reviewers comments, re-submission and checking proofs.
When publications have multiple and relatively inexperienced contributors, there is increased potential for confusion about who has responsibility for particular aspects of the publication process and what will happen in the event of disagreement amongst authors over aspects of content.
Once again agreeing expectations at the outset and ensuring each author has a clear understanding of what their contribution will be to the final publication can help minimise such problems. It is however possible that you will need to revisit assigned roles and responsibilities during the publication life-cycle in order to ensure that this reflects individual's ability and availability.
For example, a researcher may be able to contribute significantly to early drafts of the manuscript but be unable to participate fully in later stages due to taking up a new position at the end of a fixed-term contract. In such cases their responsibilities will need to be re-assigned. Navigation Leadership development for principal investigators PIs Intellectual leadership Demonstrating Research impact Publications strategy Knowledge exchange The research environment Leading a research project Building and managing a research team Developing individual researchers Developing yourself as a PI Useful contacts for PIs PIs: Frequently asked questions Acknowledgements.
Publications are likely to be one of the key ways in which the outcomes of your research team's work are disseminated and through which team members can gain formal recognition of their contribution to the project.
Strategies for Conducting Research
Some of the things you may wish to consider and discuss might include: which publication to target who will have authorship? Which publication to target There are a range of factors to consider in terms of selecting which publication to target. Who will have authorship? The Committee on Publication Ethics How to handle authorship disputes; a guide for new researchers contains very helpful guidance suitable for both principal investigators and their research staff providing: suggestions for good authorship practice advice on what to do when authorship problems do arise a glossary of key concepts in authorship, with some reading lists and websites for those who wish to take this further.
Roles and responsibilities for manuscript production and submission Getting an article from conception to final publication involves many stages such as planning, drafting, editing, preparing tables, figures and illustrations, submission, responding to reviewers comments, re-submission and checking proofs.In this increasingly competitive market for academic research, just winning a place on a well-funded and well-resourced team might be considered enough of an achievement for an aspiring researcher.
In that context, getting the results of your study published in a prestigious journal in your field would be considered an icing on the cake. If your research has a corporate backer, that expectation of visibility is even higher, such that when you meet with your corporate liaison, he or she will be looking for the acceptance letter from the relevant prestigious journal as a valuable PR piece, a potential white paper marketing collateral piece, as well as a checklist item on the long list of research deliverables.
Your strategy will require a more comprehensive list of variables and prepared responses for anticipated scenarios:. Know which journals are off-limits in advance — institutions are now being proactive in fighting the perceived lower-quality of open access journals by forbidding publication in anything other than an approved list of prestigious journals.
Know the limits of your research contract — if a non-profit foundation or corporation funds your researchthere may well be limitations as to who owns the right to publish the results.
Establish a clear rationale for each journal you select — this will give you valuable material if you choose to appeal a rejection. Know the submission requirements of the journals you have selected — this may seem like a no-brainer, but failure to follow those requirements continues to be the number one reason for rejection.
Designate clear and detailed responsibilities among co-authors — to respond to any changes required for re-submission. Ground-breaking research is no longer a guarantee of publication in a prestigious journal, since there are more research teams than publication venues with high impact factors. If your institution puts no limits on where you can publish, you can definitely find several open access journals that will work for you, but would that really be your first choice?
Devoting the extra time to planning a detailed campaign strategy for your research paper will separate you from many of your competing applicants. Leave A Reply Cancel Reply.
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Icing on the Cake In this increasingly competitive market for academic research, just winning a place on a well-funded and well-resourced team might be considered enough of an achievement for an aspiring researcher. You might also like. Publishing Research. Old Webinars. Reporting Research. Prev Next.
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Welcome to Research Outreach! This issue features a diverse array of research from across the globe. Scientific evidence, when used responsibly, has the potential to be a great power for good. However, our lives often revolve around claims based on little, poor or poorly understood evidence. Sense about Science is changing that. We speak with director Tracey Brown who tells us more about their initiatives to encourage public discussion, education and scrutiny when it comes to science.
And their work feels more relevant now than ever: the public health debate around COVID saw unprecedented levels of engagement across society in discussions about modelling, scientific advice mechanisms, and clinical trials.
It feels like an appropriate moment to take time out of your day to discover the breadth of research being conducted around the world. We hope that you enjoy learning about the work of the researchers featured in this issue of Research Outreach. We certainly did! Read This Publication. This issue we showcase new research from around the world and learn how the researchers featured are working to make a difference.
The current global coronavirus pandemic highlights the vital need for scientists and scientific organisations to communicate, implement research and work together effectively and efficiently. Providing expert scientific support to groups and institutions across Europe, the European Science Foundation has established itself as a critical member of the science community.
We hope that our audience around the world will enjoy learning more about the work of the researchers featured in this issue of Research Outreach magazine. This issue, we feature researchers working across a variety of disciplines, ranging from climate change mitigation to synthetic biology.
We speak to Olly Cooper, CEO and co-founder of the Researcher app, a quick and easy online solution for scientists to reliably keep up to speed with the latest publications in their field. A revolutionary mentorship programme for the STEM community, The Social Scientist is an online platform that enlists mentors from around the globe to provide guidance and career advice to students and professionals in STEM fields.
At Research Outreach we strive to make leading research from around the globe accessible to all.Inspiring excellence. Transforming lives. Higher education institutions in South Africa are strategically driven to develop the highest standards of research, as the reputation and recognition of these institutions lie in their ability to generate new knowledge of high impact and relevance. The University of the Free State UFS has made sound progress in the past ten years in terms of shifting its research development from an administrative to a strategic function, and in accelerating efforts to place research at the core of all academic activity.
However, its ranking in ninth position on the National Higher Education Ranking system illustrates the ongoing challenge the university faces in identifying and exploiting its competitive advantage and niche in a highly competitive environment, and in meeting changing market demands by developing new products, delivering and organising products in new ways and finding novel ways to tap old and new resources. At its core, the strategy seeks to promote relevant elements of the Mission:.
Looking forward, the University will be required to carefully plan the further development of the Academic Project. The Academic Project aims to enhance the general academic advancement of the university, and also specifically aims at developing research excellence through, inter alia, expecting academics to remain at the forefront of their disciplines, to become or remain internationally recognised experts in their fields, to publish scholarly work in the top journals of their disciplines and to enable them to train the next generation of professionals.
Various systems, regulations and policies have been put in place to ensure that the aims of the Academic Project are met, including the Academic Promotion Policy, regulations regarding NRF ratings and minimum research output requirements. In order to further the aims of the Academic Plan, the university has identified the following key performance indicators KPIs and targets for research:.
In order to further the aims of the Academic Plan, the university has identified the following key performance indicators KPIs and targets for research: Improving international research excellence, impact and visibility through research development of staff.
Developing research focus areas that will be recognised nationally and internationally for excellence. Developing information-based governance structures to support research activities. Successfully incentivising research activities to increase productivity. Successfully supporting and developing innovative research into commercialisation. Health Sciences.
The Humanities. Natural and Agricultural Sciences. Open Distance Learning. Theology and Religion. Business School. Economic and Management Sciences. Quick Links About.In the 21st century, we have more information and knowledge instantaneously at our fingertips than could have been imagined50, or even 30 years ago. Figuring out how to wade through all of that information can be daunting. Research begins with questions.
Before you begin to find sources, you must determine what your already know and what you hope to learn. Do you want first-person reflections and commentary?
Statistics and facts? News reports? Scientific analyses? If you are interested in statistics about the U. Census Bureau or the Pew Research Center. Perhaps you are interested in the experiences of veterans returning from active duty. There are two basic kinds of research—primary and secondary.How to Write an Effective Research Paper
Often, primary and secondary research are used together. You may also use primary research to supplement, confirm, or challenge national or regional trends with local information.
Primary research can include:. Some examples of source types that might be used in secondary research include:. Primary and secondary research often work together to develop persuasive arguments. The most successful project would use both secondary and primary research. First, the secondary research will help establish best or common practices, trends, statistics, and current research about homelessness both broadly in the U.
The above information would likely be available through secondary research sources. You would also need to search relevant research databases discussed in the Where Do I Look? Second, primary research, such as interviews or surveys can provide more in-depth and local bent to the numbers and details provided in secondary sources. Research is about questions. In the beginning the questions are focused on helping you determine a topic and types of information and sources; later in the research process, the questions are focused on expanding and supporting your ideas and claims as well as helping you stay focused on the specific rhetorical situation of your project.
By this point you should have a general idea of your topic and some general ideas of where you might find this information.Researchers in Europe are increasingly assessed by their publication metrics.
To uncover the effect of quantitative assessment on the publication strategies of clinical researchers in Denmark, we interviewed 9 senior researchers at the Department of Clinical Research at the University of Southern Denmark with the lowest and highest values for aas defined by Hirsch. Our aim is to investigate the importance of these metrics to their academic careers: h-index, number of publications, number of citations, international collaborations, local collaborations, field specific journal publishing and high journal impact factor publishing.
To validate our findings we compared their publication record to their statistically analyzed stated publication strategy. Our results indicate two styles of publication strategy used by these senior researchers.
Researchers with Low a engage in local collaborations, disseminate knowledge in local media and publish in field specific journals, while researchers with High a engage in international collaborations, invest significant time in publishing in the highest impact journals in their field, and acquire a greater number of citations.
Both publication strategies can lead to a successful academic career, yet we have an indication through the h5-index that the practices of the High a group are more likely to nudge the h-index. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All quantitative data, metadata and scripts underlying the results presented in the study are available from DOI: Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Researchers in Europe are occupied with a wide range of tasks outside of research, such as teaching, managing projects, curating data, and writing funding applications to name a few, which limits their time to perform research and write publications.
One should aim to publish only the most definitive work, of highest quality, in the most reputable journals in the field. Yet, when researchers are judged by the absolute value of their publication metrics, conflicting incentives come into play [ 1 ]. A researcher could be working in a trending field due to personal interest, ease of funding, or because they believe their publications are more likely to get into high impact journals [ 3 ].
Similarly, a researcher could be writing guidelines and reviews, citing their own work several times in each publication because the science merits it, or simply to increase their number of citations [ 4 — 7 ]. One could share new publications on social media to reach new readers, or simply to boost their Altmetric scores. Researchers are aware that their publication metrics are being used in tenure track assessments, grant applications and job interviews and target them accordingly [ 8 — 14 ].
Any metric that can be measured, can be gamed and naturally, there are many methods in use whose principle aim is to boost the h-index, h[ 1516 ] number of publications, N P[ 1718 ] and number of citations, N C [ 1920 ]. We asked successful researchers how they have planned their publications and deal with these conflicting incentives in academic publishing, when the measurement methods are constantly changing.
In addition, if they do focus on particular metrics, they were asked to report them. We define a successful researcher as someone who is an established researcher in their field with a permanent position at their institute, and an effective publication strategy as one that allowed them to achieve such a position.
Our main aim is to examine the behavior of high a and low a researchers in relation to what role the importance of a high h-index, number of publications, number of citations, international or local collaborations, field specific journal publishing or high journal impact factor JIF journal publishing plays in their career. Researchers in clinical science are in a special position, as their discipline offers the potential to publish in journals of the highest JIF of any field.
We therefore assume that if optimizing behavior occurs, we will find it in this field. In the following sections we explain how we sampled researchers to interview and present the analysis of their interview responses. The a was chosen over the h-index, as the h-index is a cumulative metric, where higher values likely indicate older researchers, while the a could provide more immediate insight into their publication strategies.
Yet, the a is indicating a flaw in the h-index, where highly cited articles cease to impact the metric.There are numerous benefits to sport participation among children and adolescents and coaches play a significant role in getting youth, especially girls, involved in sports and continuing participation in sports.
Female coaches can be important role models for all youth in sport. The purpose of this article is to describe the benefits of having female coaches and potential strategies to encourage more women to coach.
Table of Contents. Where are the Moms? Mental health concerns are prevalent among children and adolescents in the United States. The purpose of this article is to provide physical educators with specific strategies to work effectively with students experiencing a range of mental health concerns. Described are key warning signs for identifying students that may be experiencing a mental health need, specific communication techniques, class environment considerations, and creative ways to use games to promote student mental health and wellness.
This is not meant to increase the official responsibilities of physical educators, but to make them aware of the need to identify any young person who needs a managed RTL process. The aim is to capitalize on positive aspects of programs that are already in place to maximize publicity within communities.